The heart contains four chambers. The two top chambers are termed the left and right atrium, while the two bottom chambers are called the left and right ventricle. The four valves at the exit of each chamber sustain a one-way continuous flow of blood through the heart to the lungs and the rest of the body.
The valves of a healthy heart include,
- Tricuspid valve
- Pulmonary valve
- Mitral valve
- Aortic valve
What is heart valve disease?
Indications of valvular heart disease include heart valves that are not functioning properly. Valvular heart disease can be caused by valvular stenosis or valvular insufficiency, which are both heart valve problems. Surgical repair of a valve may be suggested when the valve defect condition can be corrected with surgical options.
What are the causing factors of heart valve diseases?
Congenital valve disorders:
It is possible that heart valve disease is present at birth (congenital). It can also occur in adults as a result of a variety of factors and situations, including infections and other cardiac problems.
Regurgitation: A problem with the valve flaps causes blood to seep back into your heart, which is dangerous. This is most usually caused by the valve flaps bulging back, which is referred to as prolapse.
Stenosis: Blood can seep backward into your heart as a result of a malfunction with the valve flaps, which is extremely dangerous. Prolapse of the valve flaps is the most common cause of this condition, which is also known as prolapse of the flaps. In case of any symptoms of the condition, reach out to the best hospital for valve replacement.
Atresia: The valve does not form, and a thick sheet of tissue forms between the heart chambers, preventing blood passage between them.
Acquired valve disorders:
Problems with once-normal valves are referred to as acquired valve disease. Infections such as infective endocarditis and rheumatic fever can cause acquired disease. Changes in valve structure, such as straining or tearing of the chordae tendineae or papillary muscles, fibro-calcific degeneration, or valve annulus dilatation, can also cause it. The reason for acquired valve disease is sometimes unknown.
Rheumatic heart disease is a prevalent valve disease caused by rheumatic fever. It has the following effects:
- The leaflets of the heart valves may become inflamed.
- The leaflets may become scarred, stiff, thicker, and shorter as they stick together.
- One or more valves (the mitral valve is the most frequent) may become stenotic (narrowed) or leaky.
Infectious endocarditis (also known as bacterial endocarditis) is a potentially fatal infection of the heart valves or the heart’s inner lining (endocardium). Germs (primarily bacteria, but also fungus and other microbes) enter your bloodstream and stick to the surface of your heart valves, causing them to swell. When you have endocarditis, you should:
Germs attack the heart valve, creating growths, holes, and scarring of the valve tissue, which can lead to the valve leaking or becoming stenotic (narrowed)
The major types of heart valve disease can include,
Bicuspid aortic valve:
The aortic valve contains only two leaflets instead of three with this congenital abnormality. It is more difficult for blood to pass through a narrowed valve, and blood commonly leaks backward. Symptoms usually don’t appear until later in life.
Mitral valve prolapse:
The mitral valve leaflets bulge and do not seal properly during heart contractions when this abnormality exists. Blood can seep backward as a result of this. A mitral regurgitation murmur may arise as a result of this. For this condition, mitral valve treatment through surgical methods is recommended.
Mitral valve stenosis:
The mitral valve aperture is narrowed as a result of this valve disease. A history of rheumatic fever is frequently the cause. It makes blood flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle more difficult. In case of severe heart valve defects, valve replacement surgery may be recommended by your specialist.
Aortic valve stenosis:
This valve disease primarily affects the elderly. It narrows the aperture of the aortic valve. This makes blood flow from the left ventricle to the aorta more difficult.
The pulmonary valve does not open fully due to this valve condition. The right ventricle is forced to pump harder and expand as a result of this. This is almost always a congenital problem.
What are the warning symptoms of heart valve disease?
Many people are unaware that they have valvular heart disease until their blood flow has been considerably diminished. Among the signs and symptoms are:
- Chest discomfort along the front of your body between your neck and upper abdomen.
- Palpitations, it’s possible that this is a symptom of valvular heart disease. It’s possible that your heart is working harder than usual. This can cause your heart to expand and disrupt the usual beat of your heart, resulting in arrhythmia.
- Shortness of breath, especially while you’re out and about. Breathlessness is caused by valvular heart disease, which lowers the oxygen available to fuel your body.
- Fatigue routine activities such as walking or housework may be more difficult for you.
- Swelling: when valve problems cause blood to back up in other body parts, fluid builds up, resulting in a swollen abdomen, feet, and ankles.
- Light-headedness: If you don’t have many symptoms or if they’re minor and don’t bother you too much, your doctor may decide to keep a close eye on your situation and treat your symptoms only when required. It’s crucial to remember that the severity of valvular heart disease symptoms does not always correspond to the severity of the condition. Make sure you have frequent checkups and talk to your cardiovascular and thoracic surgeon about any changes in your health.
Why is heart valve disorder considered serious?
Many people live long and healthy lives and are completely unaware that they have a little valve problem. On the other hand, if left untreated, advanced valve disease might result in heart failure, stroke, blood clots, or sudden cardiac arrest.
Heart valve disease is treatable and, in some cases, preventative. Cardiovascular disease is a broad term that refers to various disorders that include restricted or blocked blood vessels and can result in chest pain, heart attack, or stroke. Reach out to a top specialist at a Multispeciality Hospital In Coimbatore to undergo advanced treatment for valve defects.